3: HOMO SAPIENS Vol IV
The period of civilization of our species, numbering more than five thousand years, passed stage by stage, passing through new forms of religious beliefs, state formations, the subordination of the weak to the stronger, the disappearance of entire peoples, and the emergence of new state formations. This brutal, uncompromising stage in our civilization lasted for three millennia. Even more cruel and bloody wars awaited our species ahead, but even then, on the map of the world known at that time, certain states appeared, with their own borders, population, languages, religions, political and administrative structures, and political systems.
The scatter of political systems in different states varied from a theocracy (secular and spiritual power in one person), authoritarianism (centralized power of one person, or party), totalitarianism (total control of the state over all aspects of the country's life), democracy (from the Greek word "democracy" collective decision-making, in other words, the subordination of the minority to the majority, given the votes cast.)
The political structures of states could sometimes intertwine, forming amazing alliances. Constitutional monarchy (Britain), elective monarchies (Malaysia and Cambodia). The electoral college periodically elects rulers. There are many constitutional monarchies today.